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时间:2024-05-25 01:05编辑:admin来源:皇冠会员登入官网当前位置:主页 > 养花知识 > 阳台种菜 >
本文摘要:Since the early days of the video game industry, consoles have ruled the home. Companies like Nintendo, Sega, Sony and Microsoft MSFT -1.11% thrived by building closed ecosystems that developers could creates games over the course of five


Since the early days of the video game industry, consoles have ruled the home. Companies like Nintendo, Sega, Sony and Microsoft MSFT -1.11% thrived by building closed ecosystems that developers could creates games over the course of five to 10 years before a new, more powerful box entered the market and the cycle began all over again. But ever since the introduction of smartphones from companies like Apple AAPL -1.31% , Nokia, Samsung, LG, Google and Amazon AMZN -1.02% , video game creators have flocked to these powerful mobile devices and an entire ecosystem of small and independent development studios have flourished (also in part thanks to the digital distribution networks on new consoles from Nintendo, Sony and Microsoft).自视频游戏业发展早期开始,游戏机就支配了千家万户。像任天堂(Nintendo)、世嘉(Sega)、索尼(Sony)和微软公司(Microsoft)等企业都依赖打造出堵塞的生态系统赚得盆剩钵剩。开发者可以有5到10年的时间研发游戏,直到一款更加强劲的新游戏机转入市场,这个循环才不会被重新启动。

不过,自从苹果(Apple)、诺基亚(Nokia)、三星(Samsung)、LG、谷歌(Google)和亚马逊(Amazon)等公司发售智能手机以来,游戏开发者们就争相涌进这些强劲的移动平台,同时,一个由小型独立国家研发工作室包含的原始生态系统也渐渐兴盛(这也要部分得益于任天堂、索尼和微软公司为新的游戏机研发的数字销售网络)。In recent years, this marriage between smartphone (and tablet) and the traditional game console has resulted in micro-console devices like Ouya, Mad Catz M.O.J.O., Nvidia Shield and Amazon Fire TV. With Google’s GOOG -1.04% entry into this space this fall with Android TV, game developers will be able to create cross-platform experiences that will begin to compete more directly with the traditional console manufacturers. Chris McKillop, Android TV engineering manager, explains how this new technology could forever change the game.而近年来,智能手机(和平板电脑)与传统游戏机的联姻,可谓了不少像Ouya、Mad Catz M.O.J.O.、Nvidia Shield和亚马逊Fire TV这样的小型游戏机。今年秋季,随着谷歌携同其安卓电视(Android TV)会师这一领域,游戏开发者们将需要建构跨平台的游戏体验,从而与传统游戏机厂商开始更加必要地交锋。安卓电视的工程经理克里斯o麦基洛普在此为大家理解这种新技术将如何完全政治宣传游戏业。

Fortune: What are your thoughts on the speed at which new technology from companies like Nvidia has impacted the gaming capabilities of Android smartphones and tablets?《财富》杂志:英伟达公司(Nvidia)这类芯片企业的新技术影响了安卓智能手机和平板电脑的游戏能力。您如何看来这种影响力的速度?McKillop:It’s incredible. The latest generation of GPUs in Mobile SoCs are now at or exceeding those of the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. When the PS3 originally launched, Android was still nearly two years away from a 1.0. It’s not going to take long for the mobile chipsets to catch up with the current fourth-generation systems (PlayStation 4 and Xbox One).麦基洛弗:真是难以置信。

现在近期一代手机系统级芯片(SoC)的图形芯片(GPU)速度早已超过或多达PlayStation 3和 Xbox 360了。当PS3刚发售时,安卓1.0还要近两年后才公布。

用没法多久,手机芯片的速度就能跟上当前的第四代系统(PlayStation 4和Xbox One)。How have you seen mobile game experiences advance over the years on Google Play?您指出这些年来Google Play的游戏体验有提高吗?Mobile game experiences have made big strides on Google Play. Android is all about the ecosystem, and moving an ecosystem forward happens over time. It started with the NDK in 2009 and now with the upcoming Android Extension Pack for PC class gaming in L release. I don’t see any limit to what game developers can bring to Android. As the broader handset and tablet space start having CPUs and GPUs that can provide great high definition gaming, there is a big incentive for developers to be on Google Play.Google Play上的手机游戏体验有数相当大变革。安卓就是一套纯粹的生态系统,要想要让一套生态系统阔步前进是必须时间的。

它始自2009年的一个开发包(NDK),立刻要展开的L轮公布,将发售专门PC级游戏打造出的安卓拓展包在。我不指出游戏开发者为安卓系统开发新游戏时会受到任何容许。随着更加多手机和平板设备开始装备能反对高清分辨率游戏的处理器和图形芯片,开发者将有更大动力进驻Google Play。


What opportunities has Android opened up for game developers, especially smaller teams?安卓为游戏开发者、特别是在是那些小团队对外开放了哪些机会?There are a lot of small shops (sometimes just one developer) doing great work. Since Google Play Store has such a quick turnaround time for developers to publish updates and new games, it makes it easier for smaller shops to have a bigger impact. Another element is free-to-play gaming.有很多小团队(有时候仅有一个开发者)都做到得有趣。由于Google Play商店为开发者公布改版及新游戏获取很慢的周转时间,那些小团队更容易取得更大的影响力。

另一个机会则是免费游戏。How do you see Android TV impacting the current video game ecosystem, which is tiered separately (for the most part) across mobile, console and PC games?目前的游戏生态系统(相当大程度上)产于于手机、游戏机和PC游戏中,您指出安卓电视对这一系统有何影响?Over the past year, I’ve had the opportunity to discuss this with game developers across all three of these spaces. Mobile developers are excited to have more screens running Android. I don’t think we know yet exactly how the console players will come to the space but, as Android TV grows, it’s a question that will have to be answered. We have some ideas, and I’m excited about the next couple of years as they come to life.过去一年中,我有机会和来自这三个领域的游戏开发者都做到过深入探讨。手机开发者对更好屏幕开始运行安卓深感十分鼓舞。尽管目前我们还无法清楚告诉游戏机玩家不会如何转入这个领域,但随着安卓电视的发展,这个问题的答案必定不会入围。

我们早已有些创新了,在接下来的几年中,这些点子将沦为现实,回应我十分向往。What differentiates the big-screen gaming experience from the mobile experience today?今天,是什么使大屏游戏体验和手机游戏体验有所不同?Input system and power. Mobile experiences are almost always touchscreen-based and battery operated. Once you hit the living room, developers are going to see gamepads and remote controls, and the systems will be plugged into a wall so the chipset can run faster for longer. For some developers, it will be the first time they have had to think about non-touch gaming. For others, it will be like going back in time. Prior to the upcoming L release, Android hadn’t set down a standard for button mappings and how Gamepads should work. This made it really hard for developers to target controllers, so they either did one-off development for a single brand or just ignored controllers altogether. Android TV will give them a reason to get controllers working, and this will translate directly to controller gaming on phones and tablets. That’s the power of a single platform across all form factors.输出系统和耗电量问题。手机游戏基本上都是基于触摸屏的,要靠电池驱动。但一旦回到客厅,开发者就不会看见手柄和遥控器,系统也将用上交流电,这样芯片运营速度就更慢也更加长久。



How do you see micro-consoles like Android TV changing that?您指出像安卓电视这样的小型游戏机会如何转变这种情况?Android TV is much more than just a system for micro-consoles, it’s all about bringing Android to the big screen in your living room — either built into your TV, cable STB, media streamer or micro-console. Having a standard platform for all of these devices is going to have the same impact in the living room that having a standard platform for mobile devices has had on the mobile industry since 2008. It’s going to be a big win for developers and consumers and raise the overall expectations of everyone involved.安卓电视决不只是可供小型游戏机用于的系统,它的愿景是将安卓系统带回客厅的大屏幕上——植入电视、有线机顶盒、流媒体播放器或是小型游戏机。自2008年以来,手机的标准平台对手机业产生了深远影响,现在为所有这些设备获取一个标准平台也不会对客厅产生某种程度根本性的影响。这将为开发者和消费者带给极大的双赢局面,同时也将提升所有参与者的期望值。How have you worked with Nvidia on Android TV?你们与英伟达公司在安卓电视项目的合作是如何展开的?We have worked very closely with Nvidia (they are at the heart of the ADT-1). The folks at Nvidia really “get” gaming and gamers — it’s in their DNA. They have helped us work with game developers, as well as optimize graphics performance on the developer devices we gave away at Google IO. We also work with GPU vendors across the industry, including Qualcomm ARM, Intel, etc.我们仍然与英伟达密切合作(他们是ADT-1的核心)。

英伟达的人显然很“不懂”游戏和玩家——这就是他们的DNA。他们仍然老大我们与游戏开发者积极开展合作,还老大着优化我们在谷歌开发者大会(Google IO)公布的开发者样机的图像性能。我们还和图像芯片业内的多家供应商合作,还包括高通公司(Qualcomm)、ARM公司、英特尔公司(Intel)等。

What does Tegra K1 technology open up for video game experiences?英伟达“图睿”(Tegra)K1技术为游戏机玩家带给哪些体验?It brings third-generation console and PC-class gaming to mobile and small living room devices. We did a demo with Nvidia and the folks at Epic Games with Unreal Engine 4 at Google IO to show off what’s going to be possible.它使手机和小型游戏机也能拥有第三代游戏机和PC级游戏的性能。我们与英伟达研发了一台样机。在谷歌开发者大会上,Epic Games公司的人用“虚幻引擎4”(Unreal Engine 4)在这台样机上展出了玩家将拥有的体验。


How do you see game developers creating titles across mobile devices and Android TV when it comes to the touchscreen versus physical controller?当必须在触屏和实体手柄之间作出自由选择时,游戏开发者就不会研发手机和安卓电视都合适的游戏,您怎么看这种现象?In an ideal world a game should operate both ways equally. Since the physical controllers for Android TV devices will also work with phones and tablets, the investment for developers will be across all devices. Most of the games on the Preview Play Store for Android TV are the same ones you install on your phone or tablet. I can see a lot of kids carrying a tablet and two gamepads to school next year.理想情况下,一款游戏应当在这两个平台上都能玩游戏。由于安卓电视游戏机的实体手柄也限于于手机和平板,因此开发者投资打造出的游戏也限于于所有设备。

在Preview Play Store,限于于安卓电视的绝大多数游戏和你加装在手机和平板上的游戏是一模一样的。明年我就不会看见很多孩子带着平板和两个手柄去学校了。How does technology like Unreal Engine 4 open up new opportunities for cross-device and cross-platform gaming experiences?“虚幻引擎4”这样的技术不会如何给横跨设备及跨平台的游戏体验带给新机遇?When a game developer invests in something like Unreal Engine 4 for the core of their experience, it broadens the market they can address with a lower incremental cost. Couple this with a system like Google Play Games Services, and you can really do some fun things with cross-platform, multi-device and multi-user gaming.当游戏开发者投资打造出“虚幻引擎4”这样的技术后,它就能以更加较低的增量成本拓展更大的市场。将其与Google PlayGames Services这类系统融合后,就能确实通过跨平台、横跨设备和多用户游戏来做到些有意思的事了。

How do you see the actual gameplay experiences evolving with the ability to play on the road and then continue on the big screen at home?随着玩家不具备再行在路上玩游戏,返回家又之后在大屏幕上玩的能力,您怎么看来他们的游戏体验由此取得的提高?Most games have a cloud-based solution, like Play Games Services, for save game state so you don’t lose your progress if you get a new phone. Since we are using the same core platform for Android TV, all the same technologies continue to work. Developers love that if you buy a game on your TV, it’s installable on your phone and vice-versa. You will see us investing heavily in these sort of cross-device experiences going forward.大多数游戏都有云端的解决方案,比如Play Games Services,这样当玩家买了新手机后,就能保有游戏状态,会丧失通关进程。由于我们在安卓电视上也用了某种程度的核心平台,因此所有同类技术还是管用的。开发者十分深信的情景是,玩家买了一款电视上玩的游戏,同时又把它装有在手机上,反之亦然。

大家不会找到,我们不会之后在这类横跨设备体验的研发上投放重金。One of the current challenges facing game developers on Android is the sheer number of different devices. How do you see a unified platform like Android TV making things easier for developers to focus on creativity versus ports?目前安卓平台的游戏开发者面对的主要挑战之一是有所不同设备的数量问题。据信像安卓电视这样的统一平台可以让开发者更容易注目创新而不是与大量端口兼容,回应您怎么看?We have CPU and GPU performance requirement built into the Android TV spec. We want game developers to know that even on the low-end devices they are going to have room to play. There will always be devices that perform well beyond these specs, and there will always be game developers that want to take advantage of those capabilities when they are present. This looks a lot like the PC gaming space, and it is a model that has worked well for years. I think game developers are going to be pretty happy with this approach.在安卓电视的技术规范中,我们规定了CPU和GPU的性能拒绝。


我想要游戏开发者不会十分讨厌这种方法的。Given the speed at which we’ve seen technology, including the Tegra line of chips, advance over the last few years, how do you see more advanced and complex games impacting the traditional console business dominated by Sony, Microsoft and Nintendo?过去几年来,像“图睿”系列芯片这样的技术突飞猛进,在此背景下,您指出更加先进设备也更加简单的游戏不会对仍然由索尼、微软公司和任天堂这些巨头统治者的传统游戏机领域产生何种影响?Technology always ends up disrupting existing industries. You just need to look at the mobile space and compare the big players in 2006 with the big players in 2014 to see this in action. I don’t think that the living room will be any different, but it’s impossible to predict the winners and losers. Let’s look back in five to six years.技术最后总会政治宣传现有产业。只必须想到手机领域,对比一下2006年大买的机型和2014年的大买机型就能显现出这一点。


How have you worked with actual game developers in creating Android TV?在打造出安卓电视时,你们和游戏开发者们究竟是如何合作的?We started reaching out to select game developers almost a year ago and disclosed our plans with close partners. We also worked closely with Nvidia and their existing Nvidia Shield developers to get their apps ready for a non-touch world. Probably one of the best parts of building Android TV has been how positive and supportive the various game developers have been around our efforts. Android has an incredible Developer Relations team that is filled with avid gamers.完全一年以前我们就开始甄选游戏开发者了,并向紧密合作伙伴透漏了自己的计划。我们还与英伟达公司及其Nvidia Shield目前的开发者们密切合作,使其应用于能限于于非触控领域。在打造出安卓电视的过程中最差的一部分有可能就是,环绕着我们的希望,有所不同的游戏开发者是那么大力悲观、全力支持。安卓有一支令人难以置信的开发者关系团队,它是由许多充满活力的玩家构成的。